[Sdpg] Friends of the Trees’ Spring 2010 Newsletter

Michael Pilarski michael at friendsofthetrees.net
Sat Apr 10 10:41:48 PDT 2010

Friends of the Trees’ Spring 2010 Newsletter

Dear friends and readers,
Good luck to you in this 2010 growing season!
May you get to spend many happy hours in nature!
Friends of the Trees’ Spring 2010 Newsletter has a lot of information about permaculture as well as my news and events.
This newsletter is even larger than usual. The index on the right is to help you navigate to what is most interesting to you.
I am offering a 2 week permaculture course this July with other instructors. We would like to see this course fill up!  The world needs more permaculture and sooner the better! We may cancel this course in early May if we do not get good early sign up. IF YOU WOULD LIKE TO TAKE THIS COURSE, or, ARE THINKING OF IT … PLEASE LET US KNOW ASAP.
Michael Pilarski

www.friendsofthetrees.net  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net

July 12-25 Permaculture Design Course with Michael Pilarski

A two-week intensive Permaculture Design Course
July 12-25, 2010
Skalitude  Retreat Center
Methow  Valley,
North-Central Washington
Michael Pilarski
Andrew Millison
Josho Somine
Deston Denniston
David Sansone
& other guests
Permaculture is the premier design system for high productivity and ecologically-sound, food systems. In addition to the plant landscape, permaculture also considers transportation, energy, buildings, water supply, community economics and governance.
Course tuition:
Before May 1, $800
May 1 to June 15, $900
After June 15, $1,000
Single day $80
Some partial work trades and scholarships available. 
Tuition includes instruction, permaculture design certificate, camping, meals, and curriculum material. Graduates are entitled to use the term "Permaculture" in pursuit of livelihood and for educational purposes.
For registration and course information: Michael Pilarski:
michael at friendsofthetrees.net, (509) 486-4056
* Permaculture principles & methodology
* Observation skills
* Zones and sectors
* Site analysis
* Ecosystem restoration
* Home food production
* Fruits, berries, nuts
* Edible landscaping
* Soils, fertilizers, mulches, inoculants
* Edible and useful native plants, wildcrafting
* Multi-story, food forests
* Vegetable and crop selection
* Sources for seed and nursery stock
* Plant propagation & seed saving.
* Agroforestry & forestry
* Windbreaks, hedgerows
* Ethnobotany & ethnoecology
* Livestock and wildlife
* Urban permaculture
* Water in the landscape
* Swales, keyline, ponds & aquaculture
* Rain water harvesting
* Grey water & bioremediation
* Dry land strategies
* Natural building
* Alternative energy and fuels
* Intentional communities & ecovillages
* Local economies/barter systems
* Decentralized governance systems
* Large-scale design for cities, counties and islands
*  and much, much more!

Michael Pilarski is a farmer, wildcrafter and educator. He is the founder of Friends of the Trees Society (1978) and has written extensively on forestry, agriculture, agroforestry, permaculture and ethnobotany. He has lived in the Inland Northwest since 1972 and is the most active permaculture teacher in this region. He has taught 22 permaculture courses in the US and abroad. This is the only course he is offering in 2010.
Andrew Millison recently moved to Corvallis, Oregon after 14 years of doing permaculture in Arizona. He is very familiar with dryland techniques and has been co-instructing advanced, permaculture teaching courses. He has taught at Prescott College, Ecosa Institute, Oregon State  University and founded the Prescott EcoHood.
Dave Sansone is an avid forest gardener cultivating over 400 species of edible and useful plants in a multicrop setting.  He has taught numerous courses including wild edible and medicinal plant classes, ethnobotany of the Coast Salish, and Edible Forest Gardening workshops.  He is the director of Perennial Harvest, a non-profit that advocates sustainable cultivation systems. www.perennialharvest.org
Deston Denniston, Abundance Consulting, has 12 years of natural building experience in earth, natural fibers, and salvage materials. A living home breathes, procures its own energy, cleans its water, and draws structure from its environment while offering back the same.
Josho Somine is a designer and builder from northern California who has been active in the permaculture network since 1997.  He has worked with Occidental  Arts & Ecology Center, the Lama Foundation, and Earthaven Ecovillage. He is currently finishing a master's degree in landscape architecture at UW Seattle, with a focus in urban green infrastructure.
Other guest speakers to be announced. Course participants will also bring a wide range of knowledge and experience to share. We are all students. We are all teachers.
The Skalitude  Retreat Center is a 160-acre site surrounded by National Forest. The property and surroundings are gorgeous, fully-functioning ecosystems nestled at the end of a remote mountain valley in the North Cascades in the Methow River watershed. Carlton is the nearest town. Most of the course facilities are set up in one end of an expansive meadow ringed by forests and mountains. The adjacent forest provides shady camping.
 We have a large, covered, outdoor kitchen where we prepare three meals a day of tasty, healthy food, mostly organic. The menu includes local meat, eggs and dairy as well as vegetarian and vegan fare.
Tenting or RV - no extra charge
Shared room - $200  2-person bedrooms
Private room - $350
Shared rooms and private rooms only available July 16-25.
The word 'Permaculture' was originally coined in Australia in the 1970's by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren. Over the last 30 years, permaculture has become a global grassroots movement involving hundreds of thousands of people. Permaculture offers a huge storehouse of solutions, strategies and practical techniques gathered from around the globe and throughout history. If permaculture designs were implemented on a planetary scale in cities, farms and homes the world would become a garden of Eden.
The course covers the traditional Mollison permaculture curriculum as well as local knowledge. The species and techniques will be aimed at the Inland Northwest which includes Eastern Washington, Eastern  Oregon, Idaho, Western  Montana and southern Interior British Columbia.  Participants from other bioregions are welcome.  The main focus is learning permaculture principles and design methodology. The principles and methodology, once learned, can be applied and adapted to any site.
This course will impart permaculture principles and methodologies which can be applied anywhere in the world. Through lecture, slide shows, discussion, observation, field trips and hands-on activities, permaculture design students will develop the practical skills and knowledge necessary to design and implement sustainable systems that are in harmony with the natural world.
This course will be useful for gardeners, farmers, community food organizers, natural resource managers and anyone interested in self employment and local economies.
100s of strategies!
100s of techniques!
1,000s of species!

registration information...  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/index.htm

Spring Workshops with Michael Pilarski

April 24 - 25, Cloudview Ecofarm, Royal  City, Washington www.cloudviewecofarm.org
Saturday 5PM: Ecovillages,  International Communities and Cooperative Farming - a Discussion with Michael Pilarski
 This will be an informal gathering of people interested in  these topics in general or Cloudview Ecofarm in particular. Micahel Pilarski  will present a permaculture perspective. We anticipate a wide-ranging discussion  led by the specific intterestd and questions of the participants. Please RSVP  info.cloudviewecofarm.org
Potluck dinner. no charge. feel free to camp overnight.
Sunday 10-4: A Plant Walk with Michael Pilarski
We will be walking up a ridge in a shrub-steppe  ecosystem just outside of Ephrata, WA.
Our aim is to:

Observe and identify many plant species
Note their uses for food, medicine, crafts, etc both traditional and modern.
Give tips on harvesting, processsing, and  sustainable wildcrafting
Discuss control and management of non-native weeds
Discuss the plants' roles in the ecosytem
Introduce cryptogamic crusts (also called cryptobiotic crust or biplogical crust)
Discuss ecosystem restoration practices
Smell flowers! Taste plants! and enjoy the view!

$10 suggested donation. Bring bag lunch.  Meet at the corner of B Rd NW and 17.7 in Ephrata. will see you at the red barn.
May 1, Leavenworth, Washington 10AM-4PM
Crop Diversity: A Permaculture Perspective
Sponsored by Barn Beach Reserve. $20
Contact: info at barnbeachreserve.org  509-548-0181
May 7-8, Rice, Washington 10AM-4PM
Permaculture Design for Yards and Homesteads
Wild Plants of Stevens County: Traditional and Modern Uses
Sponsored by Wild (in) Rice Productions.
Contact Maureen Takaoka Harlow.
wildinrice at gmail.com 509-738-6576.
May 16, Tonasket, Washington 1PM-5PM
Tour Michael Pilarski’s Okanogan Biodiversity Farm. 
Trees, hedgerows, berries, vegetables and medicinal  herbs!
 No charge. Contact Michael Pilarski.
 friendsofthetrees at yahoo.com

workshops on the website  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/events.htm

List of crops from Okanogan Biodiversity Farm

Anyone interested in bulk food purchases this year?
Berries & Fruit:
Red raspberries
European Black Currants
Apricots (Last year we had over 1,000 pounds!)
Culinary herbs:
Yellow onions
Sweet Bell Pepper
Jalapeno Pepper
Cherry Tomatoes
Red, large Tomato
Aunt Jenny’s Purple tomato
Purple Globe Eggplant
Green beans
Potatoes (Yellow Finn and Butterball)
Jerusalem Artichokes
Winter squash
Summer squash
Sweet corn
plus smaller amounts of other vegetables
Medicinal Herbs:
Black Cohosh
Blessed Thistle
California Poppy
Clary Sage
Culver’s Root
These are some of the over 60 different medicinal plants we are currently growing.

Our full fresh and dry herb catalog is on our website.  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/images/2010_price_list_salvage.pdf

Internship Openings in the Okanogan 

* Okanogan Biodiversity Farm.  My own farm.  Spring internships are filled, but I am still looking for help in the summer and fall. michael at friendsofthetrees.net
* Larkhaven Farm, a goat and sheep dairy specializing in artisan cheese.
info at larkhavenfarm.com
* Leaping Sheep Farm. Mixed veggies, livestock and felting. Looking for a young woman, especially in summer and fall. 509-486-2064.
* Brooke Medicine Eagle is seeking help on her homestead.
Help Needed in Eden! Live-in or daily gardening, orchard, food preservation,  maintenance, caretaking of small, sustaining paradise sanctuary in the Okanogan on the edge of wilderness. For full info, see www.MedicineEagle.com then call Brooke at 509-223-3093


Current Events and Forecasts

These are weblinks to some of my favorite reads lately on the world situation
Dmitry Orlov on predictions for the decade
2010 predictions by Kunstler.
Endgame by John Michael Greer. Wednesday, February 03, 2010
2010 Economic Forecast: The Cardinal Crisis.
These 2010 predictions outline some potentials for changes in the latter half of 2010 and the first half of 2011.
2010 food crisis leads to financial meltdown. A lot of analysis and figures for the current crop production situation in the US as well as a long, long, long list of crop reports from around the US.
A Comprehensive Approach To Transit, Transportation, and Land Use. By James Robert Deal.
This is a very well-thought out proposal to reform our transportation system.  Highly recommended to anyone thinking about this issue. 


Article: "A Permaculture Approach to Food Production"

by Michael Pilarski  (April 2, 2010 version)
This article outlines some aspects of what a permaculture approach to   food production on a societal scale might look like. The topics here   could be better organized and greatly enlarged, but taken all together   they paint a picture of an abundant food future.
Most counties in the US only produce a small percentage of the food   consumed there. From as low as 1 or 2% in metropolitan counties to 10%   in rural counties. The figure does not get even that much higher for   major agricultural counties since most food grown there is exported and   most food consumed is imported. About one year ago the US became a net   food importing country for the first time ever. The US now imports as   much food as it exports. Granting that the exports probably weigh more   than the imports, it is obviously not a good idea for the US to be   dependent on foreign food. 
Low nutrient crops with low mineral and vitamin counts are common and   high quality, nutrient-dense foods are rare. A large portion of the   food supply is over-processed into forms that are hazardous to human   health. Industry bombards the population with advertising for fast food,   unhealthy food choices, etc. A lot of food is contaminated with   pesticides, fungicides, and biocides. Genetically modified crops,   especially corn and soybeans, are becoming a larger part of people’s   diets.
What if the mechanized agri-business model of production,   distribution and retailing breaks down?  Every county has an emergency   preparedness team. They advise citizens how to prepare for an emergency,   how to respond, and how to build neighborhood support networks.  Their   timeline is generally only days, weeks or at the most months. What  about  emergency planning that thinks in terms of years? We need  emergency  planning for a food shortages and/or massive unemployment  where people  do not have the money to buy enough food.  Local citizen  groups should  prepare such plans. Permaculture has a lot to offer in  this regard.
Some components of a permaculture food strategy.

Increase home food production. Vegetable gardens, perennials,   berries, fruits, livestock, as well as processing, canning, and storage   areas, etc.  Set up community gardens everywhere wherever people want  to  garden.  Convert 50% or more of lawn to food production.
Vegetable gardening and home food production are making a big   comeback in the United   States. This is partly driven by the economic   crisis and partly by lifestyle choices to be more self-reliant and have a   guaranteed source of healthy, fresh food. Every town has its fair  share  of great gardeners to learn from and more are coming on line  every  year.
Grow more food in local parks and public spaces.  The city of   Sandpoint, Idaho has offered Sandpoint Transitions Initiative the space   for a demonstration garden in every public park in town.
Gather wild foods where possible. Do sustainable harvesting. Do   restoration and enrichment plantings and land management to increase the   amount of wild edibles, medicinals, and useful plants in the  landscape.
Increase the numbers of small, local farms by a large factor.   Encouraging young people to start out on a career of farming is one of   the most important ways to achieve greater local food production.
Increase local meat and dairy production with local processing and   distribution. More integration of livestock with cropping systems. It is   interesting to note that 45% of the milk and meat produced in Russia  is  produced at the home level as well as 75% of the vegetables and 85%  of  the fruits and berries. If the US and Russia were in a home food   production race, Russia is winning hands down.
Diversify food production to grow local needs inasmuch as the   climate will allow.  This can include winter growing of greens.
Develop infrastructure for scaling up the local food economy. Aid   farmer to consumer marketing. Distribution centers for small farmers to   pool their products for sale to restaurants and institutions such as   schools.
Develop more local sources of fertilizer and other needed inputs for   gardens and farms. 
Build soil fertility and texture on gardens and farms.  In a good   soil particles clump up because of all the organic glues in the soil   created by the soil life. Thus the soil has good granulation. This is   also called flocculation. These clumps allow for greater air pore space   in the soil, which can hold more air and water, both conducive to good   soil life. This kind of soil is said to have good tilth. (This is   meaning of the word used by that the various Tilth organizations around   the Pacific Northwest.)

The better the soil, the easier it is to achieve high productivity,   but even the worst soils can be amended to be productive. The worse the   soil, the more inputs are necessary and generally more time as well.   Fertility inputs can be costly if you buy all your soil inputs from the   store. Another way to go about it is to use free or low-cost local   inputs.  This includes all organic matter such as spoiled hay, wood   chips, hedgerow trimmings, bark, and of course all manures. Chipped   power line trimmings are great.
There are lots of different techniques and strategies to use the wide   range of organic matter/biomass effectively.

Replace purely ornamental landscaping which has low productivity   with landscaping which is highly productive and beautiful at the same   time.  Edible landscaping is part of this but we can also grow a wide   gamut of other useful products such as herbs, fibers, dyes, wood,   crafts, firewood, etc.
Greater reliance on perennial crops as opposed to annual crops.   Permaculture puts a lot of emphasis on tree crops, shrub crops, vines   and perennial vegetables.  These should be planted starting in year one   with subsequent plantings yearly until the planting objectives are  met.   Productivity starts for some species (like raspberries,  strawberries,  currants) in year two. Other species start in year 3,  such as asparagus,  rhubarb, grapes, other berries.  Many tree fruits  don’t bear anything  much till years 4 to 6. Nut trees can take 10 years  or more. For some  crops we have to be patient, but they then bear for  decades or even  centuries.
Vegetables and annual crops are also important in permaculture food   systems.  The goal of a good permaculture garden is to get a lot of   productivity every year, starting from year 1. This is achieved by   growing lots of vegetables in between perennial plants and choosing   crops adapted to the particular set of soils, climate, water, etc at   each specific site.
Encourage seed production and plant breeding at the local and   regional level, teach classes, and distribute booklets on local seed   production.
Increase the diversity of livestock breeds in each region. Where are   the holes in terms of functional, productive diversity? What should be   brought in from outside?  What are the breeding needs for local   production?
Increased local production of nursery stock: fruits, nuts, berries,   ornamentals, medicinals, native plants, native grasses, hedgerow,   windbreak trees, etc. This local production creates right livelihoods   and products which make their customers better off.
Plan ahead for increased demand for community garden space. Select   the best available sites and prepare them with green manure crops,   fertilizers and irrigation. If deer are a problem then put up a deer   fence. Install irrigation if an adequate system is not in place.

A sane society would insure that every single person that wanted to   grow their own food had a plot of land to garden on. I think our goal   should be to have a community garden space available for everyone who   wants one within walking distance. This network of community gardens can   take many forms. There are lots of examples to study. These gardens   need coordinators to assist new gardeners in planning. The gardens   should have access to irrigation water.  Wood chips, manures and   fertilizers can be purchased in bulk to make it easier and cheaper for   the gardeners. Public fundraising could help with things like fences and   infrastructure.  Volunteerism, work parties and making do with local   resources will be necessary in many cases. This is a useful investment   in local productivity.
Replace outside inputs with local inputs. The current farming systems   require outside inputs to operate including fuel, machinery, parts,   fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides (if they use them). What parts of   these inputs could be produced locally?  Certainly much of the   fertilizer, and there are management techniques and organic materials   that can replace the use of pesticides and herbicides. Some fuel can be   produced locally. The trend in American agriculture for the past two   centuries is replacing labor with machines. We have perhaps reached the   pinnacle of that trend. Organic agriculture and small-scale agriculture   are growing trends which are more labor-intensive and less machinery   intensive. This could be the source of a large number of right   livelihoods in the future. 
These are some of the major components of a permaculture food   strategy.  We will explore some of them in more detail in this article   along with some practical comments.
Compost piles have multiple-purposes. The long-term goal is that the   compost will be incorporated into the soil once completed. Compost  piles  can be situated where they will prepare the land under them for   cultivation.  Compost piles condition and fertilize the ground   underneath them and usually eliminate all weeds. Cool compost piles made   of easily digested material take a year or less before they are ready   to spread. Some woodier compost piles may stay in one spot for two  years  or occasionally longer. Vining crops are grown on the compost  piles,  usually winter squash. Introduce red wiggler worms to the  compost  piles.  After the compost pile is finished, chickens can obtain  lots of  worm protein by letting them have access to the pile or  dismantling it  gradually for them. Hot composts can generate large  amounts of heat  which can be used in various ways.
Almost all types of organic matter have uses in the garden such as:   sheet mulching lawns, mulching annual and perennial crops, for mulching   paths, hugelkulturs (biomass raised beds), hot or cool compost piles.
There are many kinds of manures as well as different strategies of   using manure.  Different livestock give differing qualities of manure.   As a general rule of thumb we could say that fertility levels go up as   livestock intensity goes up. Because a permaculture goal is to minimize   outside inputs, livestock feed should be produced on site as much as   possible. This limits the number of animals.  The carrying capacity for   livestock of any particular site will go up over time as fertility and   plant growth increases. A backyard garden will produce more if there is  a  small flock of chickens on site. The chickens only have access to  the  garden at the beginning and end of the growing season.  Chickens  should  have a run for exercise and fresh food.  The chicken yard can be  moved  around the garden/landscape and used to prepare and fertilize  areas for  gardening. Chickens are great bug control, and turn kitchen  compost and  weeds into protein. They are not for every gardener but we  can expect to  see a lot more chickens in backyards. Chickens need to be  integrated  into the overall system and given a good life (and  protection) so we can  achieve maximum benefit. Permaculture has a lot  to say about chickens  (chooks as they call them in Australia).
Rabbits are one of the easiest animals to keep on a small place.   During the growing season there is almost always somewhere to collect   greens for them on a daily basis. Rabbits love cottonwood leaves. Their   manure is one of the best and easiest to use of all manures.  Red   wiggler worms introduced into the beds below the cages speed the   decomposition and reduce odors.  Small rabbit tractors can be used to   mow lawns or clean up garden beds.
Goats are the next level up. They are as intelligent as dogs, make   great pets, are good for brush and weed control, eat almost anything and   produce milk, meat and hides. Their manure does not carry cross-over   pathogens for humans such as dog and cat manures do. You need a large   yard to fit a goat into the system, but there are still lots of unused   corners, lots and brushfields in town which produce goat fodder which   can be harvested and brought to the goats. This is called “cut and   carry”.
Over time and as people desire it, more and more home-owners and   land-owners could have a permaculture design team come in and give   advice on how to improve productivity, reduce expenses, build soil,   improve habitat and have good aesthetics at the same time. Permaculture   design teams could include people skilled in home energy audits,   retrofits, passive solar, hot water panels, grey water, home power, food   production, medicinal herbs, etc.
Forest gardens (sometimes referred to as food forests) grow a wide   diversity of food in a system which includes trees, shrubs, vines   perennials and some annuals (and sometimes livestock). A permaculture   design might include a food forest as well as a sunny vegetable garden   and other types of habitats. Terra Commons in Olympia, Washington, has   set a goal of planting a demonstration forest garden in every one of   Olympia’s 30 neighborhoods. Homeowners volunteer their land and   volunteers come and plant the forest garden which often involves   large-scale, sheet-mulching of lawns.  Terra Commons has had a great   response from Olympia’s neighborhood associations and can barely keep up   with the demand. They are now promoting a forest garden in every urban   neighborhood in the Puget Sound region.
Erik Ohlsen has started an initiative called Food Forests Across   America. Here is Erik’s description of a food forest. “First let me   share what I think the full expression of a food forest can be. Beyond   the staple ingredients of a food forest; water harvest, tons of   leguminous trees and plants, fruit and nut trees, wildlife habitat,   growing mulch and building soil, I also see some additional elements we   can message as part of a food forest. Chickens, outdoor kitchens,   greywater, gathering and celebration spaces are all elements that I   think can be part of a full expression of a food forest. Combining the   kitchen garden with the food forest with the social needs of humans   seems like a great way to message a new aesthetic for landscapes.”
Here are the emphasis from the brochure for a 2010 Illinois   permaculture design course.

Using Permaculture design to enhance small scale farming and   suburban/urban food production
Transforming back yards, city lots, roof tops and community commons   areas into bountiful (& beautiful) gardens
Making a farming business economically profitable, socially   responsible and environmentally sound
Minimizing work and reducing fossil fuel requirements for an energy   lean future
Fostering long term financial and food security for ourselves and   surrounding communities.

Course topics include: getting the most production from a small   space, low external inputs, building soil, water harvesting, irrigation,   vertical gardening, stacking, forest gardens, using biomass/organic   matter, sun traps, perennial crops, native plants, integrating   livestock, hedgerows, permaculture design, zonation, rolling   permaculture, where to start, and stepwise evolution.
Peter Bane has written a great article “Expanding the Niche of   Local Food: A City and Regional Plan” in the Spring 2010 issue of   “The Permaculture Activist”. This is a well-articulated look at local   food production from the perspective of Bloomington, Indiana, the county   it is in and the 7-county region. Peter is able to draw on his   experience of being part of a year and half study by the Bloomington   Peak Oil Task Force. Worthy of study is their list of 21 short term   strategies (1 to 5 years), 13 mid-term strategies (6-15 years) and 5   long-term strategies (15-30 years).
“What would it look like for this city (Bloomington) of 70,000, in a   county of 110,000 in a seven-county region of 400,000 in south-central   Illinois, to grow its own food.”
- Peter Bane
Peter Bane gives us some useful figures to work with.  The 2007   national average of food consumption was 2053 pounds of food.  The   standard American diet requires 2.74 acres of land per person to produce   under current production practices.  Using permaculture best practices   and with some modest changes in diet this acreage per person could be   much reduced. “John Jeavons has demonstrated and documented that a   vegetarian diet for one person, including the fertility crops that would   be needed to sustain soil health indefinitely, may be grown on about   4,000 square feet”.
This particular article is not up on their website, but there are a   large number of articles posted at www.permacultureactivist.net/articles/articles.htm
An acre has 43,000 square feet, so theoretically 11 people could be   fed from one acre under John Jeavon’s (Grow Biointensive) best   practices.  An average city density is about 8 lots per acre.  Of course   the yields possible on one acre have different limitations depending  on  the climate, water available, soils, etc.  John Jeavons did most of  his  testing at his farm in northern California. Yields go up over time  on  most parcels of land as soil fertility builds up. The more meat and   dairy products in a diet the larger footprint of land that is needed to   supply it.
For most habitable parts of the US, it would take between one-tenth   and two acres to feed people. This is a big spread, and is probably   justified.  Where I live in north-central Washington  State, I would   estimate that with irrigation that a well-managed half-acre of food   production could support a family of four with a diet that included a   modest amount of eggs, meat and dairy produced on the half-acre.  Few   people want to eat only what they grow, but surpluses can be traded   among local producers to diversify the diet.
How many people could be fed on an acre of potatoes? Potatoes as a   main diet is not recommended, but it has kept lots of people alive   around the world for many centuries. The US potato harvest average in   1999 set a new record for 35,000 pounds per acre. That would supply 350   people with 100 pounds each.  The world record potato yield (as of the   mid-1900s) was R. C. Zuckerman of Stockton, California, who produced   71,900 pounds per acre. His record may have been beat by now.www.springerlink.com/content/5484w7345l5l276k
Diversity is the name of the game in permaculture food production.   The potato blight is still with us and so undue reliance should not be   placed on potatoes. Still, in the temperate zone it is one of the   highest yielding foods that can be grown in a small space, and it can   also be grown successfully on “rough” ground.  I like to grow it in the   early part of a rotation when starting on new ground.  It is relatively   easy to weed compared to many crops and is competitive with weeds once   established. It needs good nutrition to give high yields. 
For storage carbohydrate crops I mainly grow potatoes, winter squash   and root crops such as beets, carrots, parsnips, rutabagas, and   sunchokes, as well as corn. Over the long term it would be wise to plant   enough selected chestnut trees (where climate and soils allow) to   supply a part of our starch food requirements.  It takes about 10 years   to start getting significant production with increasing yields for a   long time.
Here is just one example. Digging biomass pits in the city. I   recently talked to a young couple who live in south Seattle who are   converting his parents’ one-fifth acre lot to food production.  One of   their techniques is to dig big holes in the yard and fill them with   hunks of wood, wood chips, lawn clippings, lots of produce waste from a   nearby grocery store and other available organic matter. Their soil is a   heavy clay with a clay pan one foot down.  The excavated soil from the   big holes provides raised mound areas with a greater depth of aeration   and better drainage overall on the site. This aeration increases   fertility. They plant fruit trees, berry bushes and useful plants around   the edges of the holes.  The crop roots have access to the decomposing   nutrients.  It is taking them a few years in their spare time to   gradually fill the yard with pits, fill them with biomass and plant   around them. A side benefit of this strategy is that there is more water   storage in the soil and there will likely also be increased   infiltration into ground water. This is another good strategy for a   specific soil type.  They have also bought two 1500-gallon tanks for   roof water storage, and are conducting many mushroom projects.
How many people would take to carry out a permaculture food strategy   on a societal wide basis? I haven’t yet made an attempt to do this in   detail, but perhaps 10% of our labor force. Since a permaculture food   strategy includes home gardens in most yards, this means that a large   percentage of the population would be gardening.  This means much more   than just the able-bodied workers actively seeking employment.  Around   the world, gardening is a family activity which includes children,   grandparents, retired, and disabled. Everyone who wants to garden should   be enabled to do so.  This enablement is where a lot of employment can   be created. People to help plan and install private gardens, school   gardens, senior gardens, community gardens, and so forth. Garden   designers of all types are needed including permaculture designers.
A permaculture design course is the fastest way to gain a deeper   understanding of permaculture.
The permaculture approach to food production has a lot to offer to   the world. 
This article is only a small sampling.

PDF of article  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/images/Perm_Appr2010doc.pdf

Article: "Permaculture Principles and Methodology"

Permaculture Principles and Methodologies
Handout for permaculture workshops - January 25, 2010 version
Michael Pilarski wrote this version of the methodology and the list of recommended website.
This list of principles is from an internet source.
Permaculture was started by Australians, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in the mid-1970’s.
"Permaculture offers a radical approach to food production and urban renewal, water, energy and pollution. It integrates ecology, landscape, organic gardening, architecture and agro-forestry in creating a rich and sustainable way of living. It uses appropriate technology giving high yields for low energy inputs, achieving a resource of great diversity and stability. The design principles are equally applicable to both urban and rural dwellers" - Bill Mollison
The following list of 46 permaculture principles is the longest I have seen in print. The list is in a vibrant state of growth and everyone in the movement uses slightly different lists of principles and wording. (MP)
David Holmgren's 12 Design Principles

Observe and interact - By taking the time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation.
Catch and store energy - By developing systems that collect resources when they are abundant, we can use them in times of need.
Obtain a yield - Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing.
Apply self-regulation and accept feedback - We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well.
Use and value renewable resources and services - Make the best use of nature's abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources.
Produce no waste - By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.
Design from patterns to details - By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
Integrate rather than segregate - By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other.
Use small and slow solutions - Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes.
Use and value diversity - Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.
Use edges and value the marginal - The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system.
Creatively use and respond to change - We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.

Bill Mollison’s Principles of Permaculture
Whereas permaculture ethics are more akin to broad moral values or codes of behavior, the principles of permaculture provide a set of universally applicable guidelines which can be used in designing sustainable habitats. Distilled from multiple disciplines–ecology, energy conservation, landscape design, and environmental science–these principles are inherent in any permaculture design, in any climate, and at any scale. The following is a list of these principles.
(There were 12 original principles by Mollison. The latter (13-34) were added on over time and some may not be directly from Mollison. MP)

Relative Location: Components placed in a system are viewed relatively, not in isolation.
Functional Relationship between components: Everything is connected to everything else.
Recognize functional relationships between elements: Every function is supported by many elements.
Redundancy: Good design ensures that all important functions can withstand the failure of one or more element. Design backups.
Every element is supported by many functions: Each element we include is a system, chosen and placed so that it performs      as many functions as possible.
Local Focus: "Think globally - Act      locally" Grow your own food, cooperate with neighbors. Community      efficiency not self-sufficiency.
Diversity: As a general rule, as sustainable      systems mature they become increasingly diverse in both space and time.      What is important is the complexity of the functional relationships that exist between elements not the number of elements.
Use Biological Resources: We know living things      reproduce and build up their availability over time, assisted by their      interaction with other compatible elements. Use and reserve biological      intelligence.
One Calorie In/One Calorie Out: Do not consume or      export more biomass than carbon fixed by the solar budget.
Stocking: Finding the balance of various elements      to keep one from overpowering another over time. How much of an element      needs to be produced in order to fulfill the need of whole system?
Stacking: Multilevel functions for single element      (stacking functions). Multilevel garden design, i.e., trellising, forest      garden, vines, groundcovers, etc.
Succession: Recognize that certain elements      prepare the way for systems to support other elements in the future, i.e.:      succession planting.
Use Onsite Resources: Determine what resources      are available and entering the system on their own and maximize their use.
Edge Effect: Ecotones are the most diverse and      fertile area in a system. Two ecosystems come together to form a third      which has more diversity than either of the other two, i.e.: edges of ponds, forests, meadows, currents etc.
Energy Recycling: Yields from system designed to      supply onsite needs and/or needs of local region.
Small Scale: Intensive Systems start small and      create a system that is manageable and produces a high yield.
Make Least Change for the Greatest Effect: The      less change that is generated, the less embedded energy is used to endow      the system.
Planting Strategy: 1st-natives, 2nd-proven      exotics, 3rd unproven exotics - carefully on small scale with lots of      observation.
Work Within Nature: Aiding the natural cycles      results in higher yield and less work. A little support goes a long way.
Appropriate Technology: The same principles apply      to cooking, lighting, transportation, heating, sewage treatment, water and      other utilities.
Law of Return: Whatever we take, we must return.      Every object must responsibly provide for its replacement.
Stress and Harmony: Stress here may be defined as      either prevention of natural function, or of forced function. Harmony may      be defined as the integration of chosen and natural functions, and the easy supply of essential needs.
The Problem is the solution: We are the problem,      we are the solution. Turn constraints into resources. Mistakes are tools      for learning.
The yield of a system is theoretically unlimited:      The only limit on the number of uses of a resource possible is the limit      of information and imagination of designer.
Dispersal of Yield Over Time: Principal of Seven      Generations. We can use energy to construct these systems, providing that      in their lifetime, they store or conserve more energy that we use to      construct them or to maintain them.
A Policy of Responsibility (to relinquish power):      The role of successful design is to create a self-managed system.
Principle of Disorder: Order and harmony produce      energy for other uses. Disorder consumes energy to no useful end. Tidiness      is maintained disorder. Chaos has form, but is not predictable. The      amplification of small fluctuations.
Entropy: In complex systems, disorder is an      increasing result. Entropy and life-force are a stable pair that maintain      the universe to infinity.
Metastability: For a complex system to remain      stable, there must be small pockets of disorder.
Entelechy: Principal of Genetic Intelligence.      i.e. The rose has thorns to protect itself.
Observation: Protracted & thoughtful      observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor.
We are surrounded by insurmountable opportunities.
Wait one year: (See #31, above)
Hold water and fertility as high (in elevation) on the landscape as possible. Its all downhill from there.

Michael Pilarski
1. Client interview, determine goals, resources, clarify values, client constraints. A questionnaire can be used as an interview guide (a la Max Lindegger) and/or filled out by the client at home (home is especially valuable if there is more than one person.) Client needs and resources: lifestyle; future development; number of people and form of involvement; finances available for the project, other resources, skills, interests. Ask women and children as well as men.
2. Resource inventory. List resources.
Site observations/analysis: everything. (assets, problems), soils, water, vegetation (species & patterns). Constraints such as: soil erosion (gully, sheet, rill, wind), flooding/waterlogging, salinization, soil toxicities, weeds, diseases, insect pests, other pests, theft, wildfire danger, other hazards. Keep in mind that a year of observation before development is commendable.
Data collection: climate, soils, maps, catastrophic data. Local horticulture surveys and resource possibilities.
3a) Prepare base maps.
b) List themes.
c) Apply principles and design methodology. Zone and sector analysis. - First functions, then species. Select elements - pattern assembly. Place elements - pattern relationship.
4.Prepare a rough design for review with mapping (bubble design).
5.Check with client, modify as needed. This feedback loop may be repeated a few or many times. Reiterative process.
6.Prepare report, maps (topographical and land use), staging, timetable (small achievable steps at a time for most clients), succession plantings. budgets, useful references (i.e. resource people, other clients, books & publications, government assistance, financial help, organizations, government restrictions, regulations, water zoning, permits needed). Cost benefit analysis. Crops/income sources (short, medium and long term).
* Prioritize development steps in design. High on the priority list should be: access, fecncing, soil rehabilitation, erosion control, water supply, earthworks, roads, dams, swales, terraces, paths, nursery.  Soil rehab before planting. Find best bulldozer operator.
* Generally create a nucleus and work out. Start at Zone one.
* Train your client in design. Educate the client.
* Permaculture design is applied science. Permaculture is implementation.
* Permaculture design is site-specific, culture-specific and client-specific.
* Function = performing a role. A list of some functions: windbreak, fertilizer, feeding livestock, bee forage, heating, improve porosity of soil, provide income, water collection, water purification, insect control. 
Permaculture Design Methodology
O'BREDIM is a mnemonic and acronym for observation, boundaries, resources, evaluation, design, implementation and maintenance.

Observation allows you first to see how the site functions within itself, to gain an understanding of its initial relationships. Some people recommend a year-long observation of a site before anything is planted. During this period all factors, such as lay of the land, natural flora and so forth, can be brought into the design. A year allows the site to be observed through all seasons, although it must be realised that, particularly in temperate climates, there can be substantial variations between years.
Boundaries refer to physical ones as well as to those your neighbours might place on you, for example.
Resources include the people involved, funding, as well as what you can grow or produce in the future.
Evaluation of the first three will then allow you to prepare for the next three. This is a careful phase of taking stock of what you have at hand to work with.
Design is a creative and intensive process, and you must stretch your ability to see possible future synergetic relationships.
Implementation is literally the ground-breaking part of the process when you carefully dig and shape the site.
Maintenance is then required to keep your site at a healthy optimum, making minor adjustments as necessary. Good design will preclude the need for any major adjustment.

PDF of article  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/images/Permaculture_principles_2010.pdf

Article: "The Struggle for the Noosphere"

The Struggle for the World Food Noosphere
 April 2, 2010 

 The world seems to me like an awesome thriller movie. There is intrigue, war, and behind the scenes maneuvering for world power. At the same time there is incredible human love, heroism and mass movements for change. The Earth itself and the climate are changing. I catch glimpses of the action via the internet, newspapers and from first hand reports.
What is going to happen next in world affairs?  We each have our own perspective. Each one of us could be considered a broadcasting antenna. Our belief structures about the future and our cosmology are transmitted to the overall planetary mind of humanity. We each contribute to the planetary human mind. The “noosphere” is one of the terms to describe this planetary mind consciousness. Further, each nation has a national character (or characters), a national noosphere. Also each culture, people and tribe has its noosphere. Judging from the wide diversity of thinking in the world today, one might think the collective noosphere must be confused, at war with itself and riddled with contradictions. The corporate media, Hollywood, television and advertizing have a strong influence on the noosphere. The noosphere is not static. Powerful ideas which catch on in a big way in the planetary mind are called memes. Ideas can sweep across the world, especially in these days of rapid communication. Peace, freedom, localization, and many good memes are out there as well as the negative ones stirred up by people with dark agendas. 
Just as I believe that every person will eventually evolve into a loving, enlightened being, so I believe that humanity’s noosphere is evolving to a higher state. A state marked by love, high ethics, neighborliness, service to one’s community and equitability. With a consequent decrease in hatred, war, greed, violence and disregard for the environment.
How would this manifest in the way we grow food? Industrial agriculture will wane, or perhaps even suddenly collapse. The forerunners of the new food system are rapidly falling into place with the development of things like the expansion of farmer’s markets, the growth in home gardening, the growth in organic gardening and farming, permaculture, biodynamic farms, CSA farms, farm internship programs training new farmers, school gardens, farm to school food supplies, food security councils and initiatives, farm to chef links, food forests, buy local campaigns, and so forth. Together they only produce a small part of the food consumed in the US at this point. Most of our food is still produced by industrial agriculture and a lot of it is sourced from countries around the world. The US recently became a net importer of food for the first time in history. The US now imports more food than it exports.
There are still over 500 million small farmers in the world. Many of them are subsistence farmers with only a few acres. The number of subsistence farmers has been diminished greatly over the past several centuries. Dispossession of land, economic pressures forcing them off land and into the slums, dumping of subsidized crops by “developed nations”, and millions killed by colonial and neo-colonial wars and aggressions and western-supported dictators. Still they persist and in some cases resist. India for example is a hotbed of farmer’s movements fighting against multi-national agribusiness control. Small farmers have it tough everywhere in the world, but still many are hanging on and some are even doing well. In the US, small-scale farming is hard economically and there are an ever increasing burden of regulations. The FAO estimates that in 1994, there were some 500 million landless people in rural areas of the world.
The corporate, agricultural complex is part of the military/industrial/financial complex which has thoroughly embedded itself in the US federal government, congress, and government regulatory agencies. Through economic means and government influence it is striving for ever greater control of the food system and discourages grass-roots movements for change. This world struggle for control of the food system is part of the fascinating, thriller movie that I am studying. Recently I watched the movie “The World According to Monsanto” and also the movie “Food, Inc.”. Both are films which expose some of the shadow side of big agribusiness.  I also watch films about new developments in local, small-scale agriculture. Monsanto and agribusiness have power and money on their side, but I believe they are losing the battle for the world food noosphere. The home gardening meme is growing and could rapidly expand if the need arises. There is an international movement for urban gardening which has been growing over the past two decades.
Cuba and Russia are two examples of how agriculture can change on a national scale. Industrial agriculture in both countries largely collapsed in 1990. Cuba invented a gardening movement which became a major food supplier within several years. Cuba’s agriculture underwent an organic revolution because the embargo allowed few industrial inputs. Today, Cuba’s food production is predominantly from home gardens, small-scale, organic farms and farmer cooperatives.  In Russia, the people responded to the crisis by doubling their gardens and home food production. Today, the Russian people still home produce 85% of their fruits and berries, 75% of their vegetables, and 45 to 50% of their meat and dairy in their family gardens.  The Russians had a distinct advantage as they still were a gardening culture while the Cubans did not have much of a gardening tradition.  Russia is also a large country with lots of available land and is not under a US embargo like Cuba was and still is. If the Cubans could do it, just about everyone could.
Growing a garden is a good idea even if there are no crises.  The fresh, tasty food, the exercise and mental enjoyment, and the thrill of eating your own food are well worth it and can save a few bucks too if that is important for your family.  If you have never gardened before, you would be well advised to start this year.  It takes years to build up skills and knowledge.  Over time, your yields will get better and with less work on your part.  Garden smart. Your failures and successes will teach you.  Find the best gardens in your area and study them. Talk to the gardeners.  Most gardeners are happy to share knowledge and sometimes plants.  Pay special attention to the organic types and those who rely on local inputs. The permaculture approach to home food production offers a lot of ways to grow food economically.
I have been studying and practicing organic gardening and farming since 1972 and permaculture since 1981. Sustainable agriculture in general has been my life-long quest.  I have studied dozens of different sustainable growing methods and permaculture is the best that I have found. The permaculture meme is a growing presence in the world noosphere as is human-friendly farming and gardening in general. The agribusiness meme may have captured a large chunk of the world’s pocketbooks at this point, but they have lost the battle for people’s hearts. 

PDF of article  http://www.friendsofthetrees.net/images/Noosphere2010.pdf



May 21–23 - Singing Alive Spring Renewal

A teaching gathering for  ceremonial/devotional singing circles,   dancing, and music. We change the world as we transform ourselves with   songs of light, love, peace on earth and goodwill to all beings
Riversong, Hood River, OR
Singing Alive Summer Harvest, Sept. 3-6 at Lillebakke,  Cosmopolis, WA

Singing Alive  http://www.tribesofcreation.com/singing_alive.html



June 25-27 - Fairy Congress!

The Fairy & Human Relations Congress is dedicated to promoting  Communication and Co-Creation with Nature Spirits, Devas and the Faery  Realms.  
This is a unique annual gathering that brings together people on the  pathways of Perelandra, Findhorn, Faery Underworld, Celtic Faery  Tradition, Shamanism, Flower Essences, Herbalism, Biodynamic Gardening, Plant Spirit Medicine, Geomancy, Earth Healing, Animal and Plant Communication, Faery Doctoring, Spiritual Permaculture, and Deep Ecology.

www.fairycongress.com  http://www.fairycongress.com




Spring Blessings!
Michael Pilarski
Friends of the Trees Society
PO Box 826, Tonasket, WA 98855  
(509) 486-4056
michael at friendsofthetrees.net 
Use an explanatory subject line.  For quicker results - write “Respond quickly” as part of the subject line.

Fairy & Human Relations Congress - Skalitude Retreat Center, POB 74 - Carlton - WA - 98114

Subscribe to this newsletter:
Unsubscribe sdpg at arashi.com:
Change your preferences:
Forward to a friend:
Report this email as spam:

This email was sent using MyNewsletterBuilder.com.
-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <http://www.permaculture-guilds.org/pipermail/san-diego-permaculture/attachments/20100410/51d5bcc0/attachment.html>

More information about the San-Diego-Permaculture mailing list